📖[PDF] A Teacher's Guide to Special Education by David F. Bateman | Perlego (2024)

📖[PDF] A Teacher's Guide to Special Education by David F. Bateman | Perlego (1)

Chapter 1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

In this chapter we discuss the main laws affecting special education and how they apply to you as a general education teacher. The omnibus Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and the Family and Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) provide important guidelines and, although the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) focuses on all students, it also has certain implications for students with disabilities.

To provide context, we explain what special education is—its characteristics, who receives it, its purpose and goal, why access to the general education classroom and curriculum is important, and who the various professionals are who work with students with disabilities. We also cover the rights and roles of parents of students with disabilities, again pointing out information that is important for you to know. (Keep in mind that some students with disabilities do not require special education services but may be affected by Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973; basically, Section 504 is an anti-discrimination statute. For more about Section 504, see Chapter 5.)

Public Law 94-142

The Education for All Handicapped Children Act (PL 94-142), which is frequently referred to as PL 94-142, provides guidance to states, allowing students with disabilities to access public education and providing financial assistance to states as supplemental funding for special education and related services. Passed in 1975, PL 94-142 mandated that in order to receive federal funding for special education, states had to comply with the law (Yell, 2015).

The outcome of PL 94-142, now referred to as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, or IDEA (PL 108-446), is special education as we know it. Most recently reauthorized in 2004, it is the main law regarding educational services for students with disabilities, and its specific components are important to their education. Before 1975, only a few small districts provided education for students with disabilities in the United States. At that time it was legal to prevent students with disabilities from receiving an education. PL 94-142 changed everything for students with disabilities, and public education became education for all.

IMPORTANT POINTS

  • IDEA is the main law governing the education of students eligible for special education and related services.
  • IDEA has eight main principles—most notably that students who qualify for special education services are to receive a free and appropriate public education (FAPE).
  • FERPA is a law that governs who can see documents and files related to students in schools.
  • Parents of students with disabilities have extensive rights to help ensure that the education their child receives is appropriate.

Eight Core Principles of Special Education

Special education law as it currently stands embodies eight core principles:

  • Child find/zero reject
  • Nondiscriminatory evaluation
  • Individualized education program (IEP)
  • Free appropriate public education (FAPE)
  • Least restrictive environment (LRE)
  • Related services
  • Parent participation
  • Confidentiality

Understanding these principles can help you understand how special education is meant to be provided for students with disabilities; they can guide you as you work to ensure that students make progress in the general curriculum.

Child find/zero reject

School districts are required by law to seek out and identify every eligible student with a disability living within their jurisdiction. Once identified, with parental permission, all students identified as having disability and requiring special education are to receive an education based on their individual needs. It is important to understand that this principle extends to students who may have committed a serious offense. Such students are still eligible for services.

Nondiscriminatory evaluation

Before students with disabilities are eligible for special education services, they must receive a nondiscriminatory evaluation, which is usually conducted by the school district. The evaluations must conform to the following guidelines:

  • Tests must be administered in the student's native language.
  • Tests must be appropriate for the student's age and suspected disability.
  • More than one test must be used in determining the disability and need for services.
  • Knowledgeable and appropriately trained individuals must administer the tests.
  • All areas of suspected disability must be assessed.
  • All decisions about eligibility for special education and related services must be made by a team, not a single individual.
  • To be eligible for special education and related services, students must meet specific criteria; school districts serve students' educational needs under specified disability categories.

Individualized education program (IEP)

All students eligible for special education and related services receive an individualized education program, or IEP. The IEP is one of the most important educational documents for a student with a disability, and it should be viewed as a contract between the district and the student's parents. The IEP lists the educational and intervention services to be provided for the student, specifying the types and amount of such services. The IEP serves many purposes: instruction, communication, management, accountability, monitoring, and evaluation.

Free appropriate public education (FAPE)

All students in the United States have the right to receive an education, but students who are eligible for special education and related services are entitled to receive a free appropriate public education, or FAPE, which may look very different than what the general education student receives. FAPE is the heart of special education, and it includes several elements. First, the educational services provided to the student (assessment, instruction, special transportation if needed, other specialized services) are all provided at no cost to the family. Second, the education must be appropriate in that it allows the student to make progress in the general curriculum and is tailored and planned according to the student's individual needs. It is important to note that an "appropriate" education does not require the best possible services, but must ensure adequate progress in the general curriculum. Third, FAPE means that the public education entity is responsible for educating students within its boundaries. Some students may have such severe disabilities that they need to attend a school outside of the district. When a district determines it is unable to provide a free appropriate public education for a student, it is still responsible for covering the cost for the student to receive that education in a different setting.

Least restrictive environment (LRE)

"Least restrictive environment" is not only a special education term, but also a legal principle—and one of the most important points for general education teachers to know about because it determines where a student with a disability is to receive education services. LRE requires that students with disabilities be educated with their chronologically aged peers to the greatest extent possible, and that typically means in the general education classroom.

Under LRE, students with disabilities who are in general education classrooms are provided with supports and services that meet their needs as much as possible. Students with disabilities are to participate fully, both academically and socially. In addition, the general education teacher is expected to differentiate the methods used to provide services so all students benefit from instruction. Students with disabilities are to be educated in the general education classroom until all available methods to meet their needs in this environment are tried and deemed unsuccessful. A more restrictive setting should be considered only if every available method has been tried in the general education classroom and the needs of a student are still not met. It is important to note that the meaning of "restrictive" is open to interpretation and depends on the specific circumstances. For example, a paraprofessional interacting with a student one-on-one all day in a general education classroom could result in a more restrictive situation than the student would experience in a separate setting for instruction, due to possible social repercussions.

Related services

In addition to special education services, a student may require related services. Section 300.24(a) of IDEA defines "related services" as those that "are required to assist a child with a disability to benefit from special education." They include but are not limited to the following components: transportation, speech pathology, audiology, physical therapy, occupational therapy, therapeutic recreation, social work, medical services, counseling, and recreational services.

You may have students in your classroom who have articulation difficulties, are uncoordinated, have poor handwriting, or face other challenges, but will not be able to receive related services even though they might benefit from them. To be eligible for related services, students must first qualify for special education under one of the qualifying categories. Related services cannot be provided as standalone services (with the exception of speech language services). Thus an IEP cannot contain only related services. The purpose of a related service is to help a student with a disability benefit from the special education program.

Parent participation

Before a student receives special education and related services, the parents or guardians must sign on. They are equal participants in the process and must give permission for the evaluation, participate in the development of the IEP, and agree to any changes in either the program or placement. As a check on the system, parents have the right to request a due-process hearing. Finally, parents may have access to the student's records, including evaluation reports, IEPs, and disciplinary reports. (We discuss parents' roles and responsibilities in greater detail later in this chapter.)

Confidentiality

As a general education teacher, you will hear a lot of personal information about students, especially those with disabilities. Needless to say, confidentiality is very important. You should discuss information about a specific student only with others who need to know. For example, a 3rd grade teacher might talk with the special education teacher about problems in the classroom with a student who receives services from that teacher but should not discuss these problems with colleagues who are not part of the student's educational team. Additionally, there needs to be a log of all personnel who see a student's special education records.

The Broader Picture: What Is Special Education?

IDEA defines special education as "specially designed instruction, at no cost to the parents, to meet the unique needs of a student with a disability"(Sec. 300.39.a.l). But beyond the definition and the various components mandated by law, what exactly is special education? In a broad sense, special education encompasses the academic, physical, cognitive, and social-emotional instruction offered to students who have one or more disabilities. Due to a specific disability, some students' needs cannot be met within what might be called the "traditional" classroom environment. Special education programs and services adapt content and teaching methodology and deliver instruction to meet the needs of each student.

Special education has four main characteristics. First, it is individualized. For example, a student with a learning disability might need a smaller class size with individualized attention in reading; a student with a physical disability might need specialized equipment and possibly some technology modification; a student with an articulation disorder might need intensive instruction and modeling to improve her ability to communicate with others.

Second, students who receive special education services may receive modifications of teaching strategies or programs. Some students require extensive modifications due to the nature and severity of their disabilities, whereas others require only minimal changes.

Third, students who receive special education services are systematically monitored. Data support all phases of the special education process. Data are used to determine qualification for services and as the starting point for the development of the IEP, in terms of present levels of academic and functional performance, which includes all academic, behavioral, and social skills. Appropriate assessment at the start of the IEP process provides baseline data from which future progress can be measured. Progress toward goals can be measured by the student's performance in relation to individual short-term objectives or through other means, as determined by the IEP team. The IEP must also include a statement of how the student's progress toward goals and objectives will be measured. The data accumulated from these measurements are used to assess the student's progress.

Fourth, students who receive special education services also receive related services necessary to help ensure an appropriate education. As noted in the earlier discussion about the eight core principles of special education, these services are an important and beneficial component of many students' programs.

Who receives special education services?

Parents and other staff may come to you requesting an IEP for a student who has been diagnosed with a disability. However, it is important to understand that to be eligible for special education and have an IEP, a student must (1) meet the disability criteria outlined in federal and state law and (2) require individualized instruction (i.e., instruction that is not available to the general population of students). If these two criteria are not met, then a student does not qualify, even if that student has a disability.

Keep in mind that some students may be diagnosed with a disability and only require accommodations. Those students would not qualify for an IEP because requiring accommodations is not the same as requiring individualized instruction. However, they may qualify for a Section 504 plan (see Chapter 5 for more about Section 504 plans). Some parents and educators believe a diagnosis of a disability from a clinical psychologist or a physician automatically makes a student eligible for special education and related services. The student may have a disability but may not necessarily need specially designed instruction, and is therefore not eligible for special education. If a student receives a diagnosis of a disability from someone outside the school district, the district should consider this diagnosis and review the student's educational performance closely to determine if special education is necessary. The student may well be eligible, but that determination is made only after a comprehensive evaluation.

A comprehensive evaluation includes all of the existing data gathered about the student through the referral process and any additional assessments needed to determine eligibility for special education. As part of this information, the general education teacher provides an assessment of the student's progress in the general education classroom. Also, observa...

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APA 6 Citation

Bateman, D., & Cline, J. (2016). A Teacher’s Guide to Special Education ([edition unavailable]). ASCD. Retrieved from https://www.perlego.com/book/3292794/a-teachers-guide-to-special-education-a-teachers-guide-to-special-education-pdf (Original work published 2016)

Chicago Citation

Bateman, David, and Jenifer Cline. (2016) 2016. A Teacher’s Guide to Special Education. [Edition unavailable]. ASCD. https://www.perlego.com/book/3292794/a-teachers-guide-to-special-education-a-teachers-guide-to-special-education-pdf.

Harvard Citation

Bateman, D. and Cline, J. (2016) A Teacher’s Guide to Special Education. [edition unavailable]. ASCD. Available at: https://www.perlego.com/book/3292794/a-teachers-guide-to-special-education-a-teachers-guide-to-special-education-pdf (Accessed: 15 October 2022).

MLA 7 Citation

Bateman, David, and Jenifer Cline. A Teacher’s Guide to Special Education. [edition unavailable]. ASCD, 2016. Web. 15 Oct. 2022.

📖[PDF] A Teacher's Guide to Special Education by David F. Bateman | Perlego (2024)

FAQs

What are the 5 factors that make special education special? ›

Answer and Explanation: The behavior, limited English proficiency, blind or visually impaired, communication needs or deaf or hard of hearing, and assistive technology are the five factors that IEP team must determine to make special education effective for the students with disabilities.

What questions are asked in the Ecse teacher interview? ›

Operational and Situational questions

Which teaching strategies do you prefer and why? What is your experience with Individualized Education Plans? What would you do to integrate a student with learning disabilities in the classroom? What methods do you use to maintain discipline in your classroom?

What are the 3 most important roles of a special education teacher? ›

Special education teachers typically do the following: Assess students' skills and determine their educational needs. Adapt general lessons to meet students' needs. Develop Individualized Education Programs (IEPs) for each student.

What are the 4 classroom management styles? ›

Classroom management can be done in four different ways: authoritarian, authoritative, permissive, and indulgent.

What are the seven C's of special education? ›

The seven skills are: • Collaboration • Communication • Creativity • Critical Thinking • Character • Citizenship • Computational Thinking If we believe our work as teachers is mainly to prepare students for successful futures, then we should give opportunities for students to strengthen these skills.

What are the six pillars of special education? ›

Key to the legislation are six pillars that ensure a child's education needs and progress are met with:
  • Individualized Education Program (IEP). ...
  • Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE). ...
  • Least Restrictive Environment (LRE). ...
  • Appropriate Evaluation. ...
  • Parent and Teacher Participation. ...
  • Procedural Safeguards.

How do I pass an interview for a teaching job? ›

17 teacher interview tips
  1. Convey your passion for teaching and students. ...
  2. Research the school. ...
  3. Discuss professional development. ...
  4. Focus on your students more than yourself. ...
  5. Be engaging in the conversation. ...
  6. Plan to tell stories about challenges and successes with students. ...
  7. Be ready to discuss your teaching philosophy.
Mar 6, 2023

How do you answer what motivates you? ›

Good Answers to the Tricky Interview Question "What Motivates You?"
  1. learning new things.
  2. acquiring new skills.
  3. meeting deadlines, goals and targets.
  4. coaching others.
  5. improving processes, finding ways to solving problems.
  6. leading a team or being a part of a team.
  7. completing a difficult project.
  8. overcoming challenges.
Feb 24, 2023

What makes an excellent special education teacher? ›

A good special education teacher needs to be patient and understand her students better to help them learn. Acceptance : Special education teachers work with disabled students with various problems. Irrespective of the issues, these professionals must accept all the children and interact with love and respect.

What is another name for a special education teacher? ›

Special education teachers might also be called inclusive education teachers or learning support teachers.

What are the three types of special education interventions? ›

What Is Intervention in Education?
  • Proactive: Deals with areas of need before they become a larger obstacle to education.
  • Intentional: Specifically addresses an observed weakness.
  • Formal: Uses targeted methods for addressing specific needs and tracks progress.
Oct 15, 2019

What are the 4 C's of classroom management? ›

Teaching through the lens of the "Four Cs"—critical thinking, communication, collaboration, and creativity—will help us and our students stay essential in an evolving world of work.

What are the 5 P's of classroom management? ›

Try the 5 Ps: positive, polite, prepared, productive, and prompt.

How do you motivate students? ›

Tips On How To Motivate Your Students
  1. Become a role model for student interest. ...
  2. Get to know your students. ...
  3. Use examples freely. ...
  4. Use a variety of student-active teaching activities. ...
  5. Set realistic performance goals. ...
  6. Place appropriate emphasis on testing and grading. ...
  7. Be free with praise and constructive in criticism.

What are the four goals of special education? ›

The framework regards academic goals as the means for achieving other outcomes, namely the four outcomes that the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) declared: equality of opportunity, full par- ticipation, independent living, and economic self-sufficiency.

What are the four terms used in special education? ›

Common Terms in Special Education
  • Individualized Education Program (IEP) ...
  • IEP Team. ...
  • Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE) ...
  • IDEA: The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. ...
  • Inclusion. ...
  • Non-public school. ...
  • Functional Behavioral Assessment (FBA) and Behavior Intervention Plan (BIP) ...
  • Independent Educational Evaluation (IEE)

What is AAC in special education? ›

AAC, which stands for augmentative and alternative communication, is a way for people to communicate when they do not have the physical ability to use verbal speech or writing. AAC systems are designed to help people express their thoughts, needs and ideas.

What does FAPE stand for? ›

The acronym "FAPE" is used to mean a free appropriate public education. The federal law that gives these rights is the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. The federal law is also known as the IDEA.

What does RtI mean? ›

Response to Intervention (RtI) is an approach that schools use to help all students, including struggling learners. The RtI approach gives Texas students opportunities to learn and work at their grade level.

What is the zero reject principle? ›

Zero reject is an educational philosophy which says that no child can be denied an education because they are "uneducable". It is part of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), which is the main special education law that seeks to guarantee free and public education for students with disabilities.

What are the 7 most common interview questions and answers pdf? ›

How to master these 7 common interview questions
  • Where do you see yourself in five years time? ...
  • What are your strengths/weaknesses? ...
  • Why should I hire you? ...
  • Tell me about yourself/your work experience. ...
  • Why do you want this job? ...
  • What are your salary expectations? ...
  • Why are you the right fit to succeed in this role?

How do you handle disruptive behavior in the classroom? ›

What to do
  1. Be steady, consistent and firm.
  2. Acknowledge the feelings of the individual.
  3. Remember that disruptive behavior is often caused by stress or frustration.
  4. Address the disruption individually, directly and immediately.
  5. Be specific about the behavior that is disruptive and set limits.

How should I introduce myself as a teacher in interview? ›

Hi, I am [name], a recent graduate of [university]. I would love to teach Maths at your school. I have been teaching in (school name) for the past 6 years. I have taught all levels, from kindergarten to university students.

What are the 10 most common interview questions? ›

10 classic interview questions
  • Tell me about yourself. ...
  • Why do you want to work for us? ...
  • Give an example of where you've been able to use your leadership skills. ...
  • What are your strengths and weaknesses? ...
  • Where do you see yourself in five years? ...
  • What is your greatest achievement? ...
  • Why should we hire you? ...
  • Are you a team player?

How do you handle difficult situations? ›

Begin by describing the difficult task and laying the groundwork to provide context. Then, explain the problem. Discuss your job and responsibilities before going into how they relate to the challenge. Next, detail the steps you took to address the difficult situation before describing the results of your actions.

What is your greatest weakness? ›

Answer “what is your greatest weakness” by choosing a skill that is not essential to the job you're applying to and by stressing exactly how you're practically addressing your weakness. Some skills that you can use as weaknesses include impatience, multitasking, self-criticism, and procrastination.

How do you handle stress? ›

Healthy Ways to Cope with Stress
  1. Take breaks from watching, reading, or listening to news stories, including those on social media. ...
  2. Take care of yourself. ...
  3. Take care of your body. ...
  4. Make time to unwind. ...
  5. Talk to others. ...
  6. Connect with your community- or faith-based organizations.
  7. Avoid drugs and alcohol.

What are the 3 important components that make up special education? ›

That's three separate, distinct, and critical elements–special education, related services, and supplementary aids and services–and each is worthy of a book on its own. Don't worry!

Which skill is most important in teaching inclusive education? ›

Collaboration. All participants (100%) reported that collaboration is an essential competency for teachers for inclusive education. This was seen to facilitate their working with and through other stakeholders to pool support and assistance to meet the individual needs of all children.

What makes a good special education leader? ›

The Professional Standards for Educational Leaders (PSEL) state that effective leaders cultivate an inclusive, caring, and supportive school community; and strive for equity of educational opportunity and culturally responsive practices that promote the academic success and well-being of each student.

What did special education used to be called? ›

The 1990 reauthorization (Public Law 110-476) changed the law's name from EHA to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, or IDEA.

What is the short name for special education? ›

Special Education (SPED)

What is a class teacher called? ›

A teacher, also called a schoolteacher or formally an educator, is a person who helps students to acquire knowledge, competence, or virtue, via the practice of teaching.

What is a Tier 2 behavior? ›

Tier 2 supports target expected behavior by providing positive reinforcement for often. For example, students who participate in a Tier 2 Check-in Check-out intervention engage in feedback sessions with their classroom teacher and other adults in the school as many as 5-7 times per day.

What is best practice in special education? ›

Some best practices in special education include differentiated instruction, modified assignments and peer support. When and where special education students receive their education services is known as the least restrictive environment.

What does Tier 2 mean in education? ›

Tier 2 consists of children who fall below the expected levels of accomplishment (called benchmarks) and are at some risk for academic failure but who are still above levels considered to indicate a high risk for failure.

What is 5 es lesson plan? ›

What are the 5Es? o The 5Es represent five stages of a sequence for teaching and learning: Engage, Explore, Explain, Extend (or Elaborate), and Evaluate. personally involved in the lesson, while pre-assessing prior understanding.

What are the 3 principles in classroom management? ›

  • Positivity. People do good when they feel good, not when they feel bad. Always communicate what you WANT—NOT what you do not want. ...
  • Choice. We are constantly making choices, and we do not usually argue with them. ...
  • Reflection. A person can control another person only temporarily.

What is a good classroom management style? ›

The authoritative approach is the best form of classroom management style because it is the one most closely associated with appropriate student behaviors.

What are the 5 P's of behavior? ›

They are called "The 5 Ps ," and are: Prompt, Prepared, Productive, Polite, and Position.

What makes a good classroom? ›

Comfort is key. Sufficient space and good lighting (preferably natural light are non-negotiable. Dark, cramped classrooms fail to facilitate learning. Beyond this, good classrooms have clear acoustics, high air quality and a balanced temperature.

How do you motivate students who struggle? ›

Top 5 Strategies for Motivating Students
  1. Promote growth mindset over fixed mindset. ...
  2. Develop meaningful and respectful relationships with your students. ...
  3. Grow a community of learners in your classroom. ...
  4. Establish high expectations and establish clear goals. ...
  5. Be inspirational.
Jun 4, 2018

How do you motivate weak students? ›

A List Of Simple Ideas To Improve Student Motivation
  1. Give students a sense of control. ...
  2. Be clear about learning objectives. ...
  3. Create a threat-free environment. ...
  4. Change your scenery. ...
  5. Offer varied experiences. ...
  6. Use positive competition. ...
  7. Offer rewards. ...
  8. Give students responsibility.
Dec 11, 2021

How can a teacher start a lesson? ›

Five Ways to Start Your Lessons
  1. Start with a Video. Everyone loves a good video, especially kids. ...
  2. Start with an Object. Another way to get your students wondering about a topic is to show them objects related to the content. ...
  3. Start with a Question. ...
  4. Start with Movement. ...
  5. Start with a Mistake.

What are the five factors that need to be considered at every IEP meeting? ›

IDEA lists five special factors that the IEP team must consider in the development, review, and revision of each child's IEP: behavior, limited English proficiency, Braille and children with blindness or visual impairment, communication needs (especially important for children who are deaf or hard of hearing), and ...

What are the determining factors used to qualify for special education? ›

In general, to qualify for special education in California, (i) the child must have one or more eligible disabilities; (ii) the disability must negatively affect her/his educational performance; and (iii) the disability must require special education and related services. See Capistrano Unified Sch. Dist. v.

What are the key components of special education? ›

Serving Students With Disabilities: A Resource for Assessing the Basic Components of Your Special Education Infrastructure
  • Collaboration and Communication. ...
  • Staffing. ...
  • Policy and Procedures. ...
  • Data Systems. ...
  • Resource Management. ...
  • Instructional Practices.

What are the 7 components an IEP must include? ›

This type of information is captured in the “present levels” statement in the IEP.
  • Annual Goals. ...
  • Benchmarks or Short-Term Objectives. ...
  • Measuring and Reporting Progress. ...
  • Special Education. ...
  • Related Services. ...
  • Supplementary Aids and Services. ...
  • Program Modifications for School Personnel. ...
  • Extent of Nonparticipation.

What are five 5 things teachers should look for in an IEP? ›

Here are five key things to be on the lookout for when you read an IEP and how they apply to your classroom.
  • Present level of performance. ...
  • Annual goals. ...
  • Special education and related services. ...
  • Supplementary aids, services, modifications, and/or supports. ...
  • Notes and considerations — including special factors.

What is generally the most challenging component for the IEP team? ›

CHALLENGE 1: COLLABORATION

But sometimes even getting everyone on the same page to start with about what the student can and can't do can be a challenge. Then add to that the fact that every member of the IEP team comes to the table with a different focus, and finding common ground can be especially tough.

What are the most common special educational needs? ›

Types of special educational needs
  • Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) support. ...
  • Autism (ASC) support. ...
  • Specific learning difficulties. ...
  • Speech, language and communication needs. ...
  • Physical disabilities. ...
  • Social and emotional mental health needs. ...
  • Sensory health services.

What are the 3 criteria for learning disability? ›

They are characterized by a persistent impairment in at least one of three major areas: reading, written expression, and/or math. An estimated five to 15% of school-age children struggle with a learning disability.

What is guaranteed to all students with disabilities? ›

The rights of students with disabilities in K-12 and postsecondary schools are protected by Section 504 and the ADA. The Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975 guarantees a free and appropriate public education (FAPE) for every child with a disability in the United States.

What are the six domains of learning disabilities? ›

The Six Areas of Academic and Functional Skill
  • Academics. ...
  • Cognitive Learning. ...
  • Communication. ...
  • Independence and Self-Determination. ...
  • Physical and Health. ...
  • Social and Emotional Learning.

What are functional skills for disabilities? ›

Functional Skills is defined as “the acquisition of essential and critical skills needed for a child with disabilities to learn specific daily living, personal, social, and employment skills or the skills needed to increase performance and independence at work, in school, in the home, in the community, for leisure time ...

What are the eight components of an IEP? ›

Transition Goals in the IEP
  • Part 1: Present Levels. How is the child currently doing in school? ...
  • Part 2: Annual Goals. ...
  • Part 3: Measuring and Reporting Progress. ...
  • Part 4: Special Education. ...
  • Part 5: Related Services. ...
  • Part 6: Supplementary Aids and Services. ...
  • Part 7: Extent of Nonparticipation. ...
  • Part 8: Accommodations in Assessment.

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